The joint effort in dealing with the problems creating solutions would enhance the chances of the success of the programme or the course. Their shared expertise and shared ownership of problems would help the educators to deal with the problems collaboratively, rather in isolation. Friend and Cook point out that collaboration between regular school teachers, parents of differently abled students and other school staff is one of the most significant issue in the education of differently abled students in regular school settings.
West and Cannon conducted a study involving hundred experts from forty seven states in the United States of America to recognize necessary collaborative consultation competencies needed by both regular and special educators in inclusive education settings. These experts rated awareness of consultancy theory and models, ability to communicate interactively and solving problems collaboratively as the most significant collaborative-consultation skills for regular school teachers who are involved in the implementation of inclusive education. Regular school teachers could use the given collaborative strategies in order to deliver effective instructional programs to differently abled students — peer collaboration, co-teaching and teacher assistance teams.
inclusive education essay | Inclusion (Education) | Autism Spectrum
Peer collaboration involves pairs of teachers working together to resolve classroom problems. Pugach and Johnson found that teachers using this strategy are likely to have fewer problems. Friend and Cook defined co-teaching as "two or more professionals delivering substantive instruction to a diverse or blended group of students in a single space.
Teacher assistance teams are also known as support teams, intervention assistance teams and planning teams. Here a group of teachers meet and brainstorm options for a teacher experiencing problems in the classroom. Assessment, the process of using testing and other formal and informal means of evaluation to make educational decisions, is one of the most vital skills for a regular classroom teacher to have in the implementation of inclusive education programs.
The teacher has to employ both, basic skills such as gathering, learning and background information of differently abled students and also highly specialized skills such as selecting, administering, scoring and interpreting standardized measurement instruments. Friend and Bursuck suggested that regular school teachers could use assessment information for six instructional and placement decisions for differently abled students.
These contain screening, diagnosis, program placement, instructional evaluation and program evaluation. The main decision related to diagnosis is eligibility for special education services. To some extent, regular school teachers will play a role in making placement decisions such as a general education classroom, resource room or full-time special education classroom.
Although the main decisions are made by administrators and school psychologists regarding the placement, regular classroom teachers will assist them in making such a decision as part of the multidisciplinary team. Process measures include the types of interactions differently abled students have with their teachers and peers. Regular school teachers need to be knowledgeable about different kinds of evaluation methods in order to determine the learning outcomes of differently abled students.
They need to demonstrate competency in performance-based assessments, portfolios and curriculum-based assessments. These assessments allow differently abled students to construct a response, create a product or demonstrate what they understand and can do. Friend and Bursuck said that these assessments are more likely to reveal student understanding since they call for students to apply knowledge and skills rather than to only recall and recognize.
Alternate assessments such as portfolio assessments are also effective ways of evaluating differently abled students. Portfolios make it possible to collect the learning process over time as well as the assessment of non-traditional strengths and talents such as artistic or visual abilities of students. Curriculum-based assessments CBAs also provide teachers with information on the demands of instructional tasks and allow them to determine the content and pace of an instructional program. A research study, by Mukhopadhyay found that regular and special education teachers in India recognized evaluation as one of the most important skill for regular classroom teachers who work with exceptional children.
CCE is a most suitable procedure due to its fundamental principles of flexibility, functionality, accountability and economy in evaluating a child with disability in an inclusive setting. This skill is at the heart of all the competencies that regular teachers need to exhibit while working with diverse student population. These skills are the ones that they should use on a daily basis to provide appropriate instruction to special needs students. A number of specific instructional techniques that regular classroom teachers would require to be competent in include — differentiated instruction, activity based and peer tutoring, experiential learning and collaborative learning.
Need For Effective Public Relation Strategy For Inclusive Education
Each one of them has been tested in the field and validated to demonstrate their effectiveness. Other practices that have also been field tested with students with special needs include response cards, guided notes, and error correction and time trials. Earlier, regular classroom teachers employed the ability grouping to deal with variations in student skill levels. Gamoran studied the research on ability grouping and decided that an educational practice perpetuated low achievement and increased the gap between high and low achieving students.
To overcome these difficulties and to successfully accommodate differently abled students, regular school teachers needed to practice differentiated instruction. It is an instructional approach that allows the regular classroom teacher to plan for all students within one lesson, thereby decreasing the need for separate programs while allowing the teacher to weave individual goals into classroom content and instructional strategies Tomlinson, Thus, a diverse group of learners share an instructional activity in which individually appropriate learning outcomes happen in the same curriculum area.
Differentiated instruction allows students to learn from one another in an environment of human diversity. In such classrooms individual differences are the standard rather than the exception. This technique has been accepted by regular school teachers who state that it is easier than preparing many lessons and that classroom instruction has coherence despite individualization Porter, Such instructional delivery methods are, difficult for differently abled students who are included in regular education classrooms. These students require the teachers to deliver instruction that is activity-based and facilitates learning of students through personal experiences.
With the use of both activity-based and experiential learning, students become involved in discovery, movement, interaction with the environment and manipulation of materials. As this learning uses real-life activities and materials, skill generalization and transfer are facilitated. According to Choate hands-on interactive instructional approaches to a lesson appeal to the senses and make it easier for differently abled students to learn.
This active learning promotes student attention, increases on-task behaviour and decreases the incidence of negative behaviour. Freiberg and Driscoll found that students who were actively involved and engaged in lessons learnt better and faster than students who were "instructionally inactive".
Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that involves of student partnerships, involving high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement, for organized study sessions. It is effective in improving on-task behavior, math performance, reading performance and social interactions of differently abled students in inclusive classrooms Fuchs et. A competitive classroom environment and educational approaches grounded on comparing pupils with a predetermined standard are not favourable to inclusive education. Cooperative learning, encourages students to work together to complete tasks and solve problems.
Putnam, these approaches enhance learning, improve inter-group relations, develop problem solving skills and improve the academic and social skills of students with special needs in regular education classrooms. Studies have also displayed that teaching social skills to differently abled children and their nondisabled peers in cooperative groups results in increased frequency, duration and quality of social interactions Jenkins et. Creating an educational program individualized that is tailored to the unique needs of a differently abled child and this is the hallmark of special education.
This is what makes special education different from regular education. However a union of both well-established stream of instruction is needed from regular school teachers if they are to serve all students in their classrooms including those with exceptionality. A conceptual framework for instructional adaptations for students with disabilities was provided by Glaser He envisaged instructional adaptations as a process of choosing and applying an appropriate teaching action following an assessment-based determination that previous lesson for a student was unsuccessful.
These adaptations, therefore, require teachers to implement alternative teaching actions such as modifying assignments, materials, testing procedures, grading criteria and varying presentation styles in order to improve the achievement of differently abled students in regular education classrooms.
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For example, necessary adjustment of materials e. Recent progresses in technology for special needs students has made it possible for tto accomplish a number of tasks, while being in regular education environment, that was not possible earlier. It is imperative that regular classroom teachers must have at least some level of knowledge and understanding in the use of such devices and software applications Dimmitt et al.
Apart from the "traditional" knowledge and skill domains, regular school teachers are now also expected to demonstrate ability in a number of emerging competencies. The emerging competencies include maintaining ethical and professional standards CEC, and sensitivity toward the cultural background of differently abled students with disabilities. Mitchell, Among its numerous objectives, the SSA pursues to empower teachers through extensive training. It offers grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of academic support structure at a cluster, block, and district levels.
CWSN includes kids with sensory impairments hearing and vision , physical handicap, mental retardation and learning disability. Equity and integration of education for these kids does not only mean to simply enrol them into regular schools or classrooms.
She is the leading force of this classroom This paper will discuss what inclusion is and two issues that may arise with the implementation of inclusive practices within schools. As discussed by Putman cited Foreman p19 that inclusive schools celebrate and welcome diversity in ability, culture, ethnic, racial and social background Foreman and Arthur-Kelly Inclusive education is a term often associated with Special education, and children with additional needs.
However, inclusive education is about ensuring that educational settings allow for meaningful participation by all learners. Each child has their own unique identity, ways of doing things, strengths and weaknesses. Research Papers words 8. Dukes and Lamar-Dukes suggest looking through the lens of an engineer can be beneficial in designing an inclusive education program in secondary schools. Students should be treated with equal opportunities for learning no matter their abilities or disabilities. The main concern for following the inclusive classroom model is that the different levels of learning are going to be affected and the students who have severe disabilities become a disruption within the general education classroom.
There is usually two teachers in an inclusion classroom one teacher being the special education teacher and the time and effort but into collaboration needs to be consistent and equally balanced so no one teacher feels overwhelmed I intend on doing this by arguing, analyzing and discussing the inclusive learning environment This method of inclusion views children with disabilities as people who are participants and members of their schools and communities.
I used to take this little African body and force it into this European square peg. And you know, it didn't work. I kept trying to do it and trying to change who I was and tried to fit in. When I finally decided to be the person that I am, I started feeling more comfortable.
Taylor , p. Ever since Malcolm Knowles introduced the concept of learning climate, adult educators have been aware of how the environment affects learning In the US, three placement options are inclusive settings, mainstreaming, and residential schools. Even though inclusion and mainstreaming have a distinct meaning, these two terms are used interchangeable in Turkey. United States of America History of Special Education The early history of foundations for mainstreaming began in the s because educators and parents became frustrated lack of academic and soci Inclusion refers to the practice of educating all students regardless of disability in the same classroom as students without disabilities.
Though the term is relatively new, the underlying principle is not, and reflects the belief that students with disabilities should be educated in the least restrictive environment LRE , or as close to the mainstream of general education as possible Powerful Essays words The inclusion classroom is a way for all students, disabled or not to gain access to the general curriculum and non-disabled peers in the least restrictive environment.
This set-up on paper is a great system, however teachers are often placed in an inclusion setting without a choice, personal compatibility or training on how to co-teach. This often leads to an ineffective classroom, teachers are stressed, drained and overwhelmed Better Essays words 3 pages Preview. The study explored the following four questions: 1. What are the generally held beliefs of general education teachers of mathematics in the middle school toward including learning disabled students in the general education classroom It will demonstrate the purpose and objective behind these assessment strategies and the use of assessment for a range of purposes drawing on current issues in practice and discussing measures used by practitioners.
It will also demonstrate the importance of collaboration between professionals, learners and parents to ensure respectful and shared assessment practice showing an awareness of the importance of considering validity of content and technique to support the chi Powerful Essays words 7.
In order to lead this process effectively, it is important to know the community in which you serve; therefore I would invite all stakeholder in the district to multiple session in which I listen to their questions, comment, and concerns. Better Essays words 2 pages Preview. To establish an Inclusive program one has to first find funding opportunities that will help build a program.
Having a successful foundational platform for Inclusive programs stem from the best curriculum and environment for the candidates involved. This opportunity opens the door for new directors to search for the best qualified and experienced educators and staff to help build the program There are a total of 21 students in his class, Mr. Kutterhead informed he that there are six students in his class that have learning disabilities. Many of the characteristics I observe are behavior, social, emotional and cognitive abilities.
Many of the special needs students that are placed in inclusive classroom are dealing with the challenges of focusing which sometimes leads to behavioral issues Strong Essays words 6. These children are generally overlooked by members of staff as do not openly contribute to class discussions and most importantly never cause any disruption This also develops the understanding of the human growth process in terms of different learning styles and what teaching strategies can be used.
Communication strategies to support learning, strategies to support inclusive student participation and engagement in learning, and organisation of the classroom and providing directions to learners managing challenging behav The enemy has teachers, administrators, and counselors working around the clock trying to figure out how to get classrooms across the nation back in line. Behavior problems, first, reared its ugly head in students who were in gangs, on drugs or just bullies. Now in the 21 century, classrooms are being filled more with students from diverse backgrounds The course is a vocational qualification and can be work-based, classroom or distance learning and is designed for a specific career Good Essays words 1.
Hartwig study covered above a hundred rural primary and secondary schools between and Better Essays words 5. It is also language that doesn 't deliberately or inadvertently exclude people from being seen as part of a group. Throughout this report, when referring to 'specific needs', the definition should be regarded as any impairment, disability or specific need including mental health. Powerful Essays words 9. For this reason, training music educators in the inclusive setting is needed Gerrity et al.
Term Papers words 4. Introduction: This essay reports the state of urban and rural educational development in public schools, while also focusing on New Orleans public education system. In the literature, we explore factors both internal and exclusive as well as factors external and inclusive that contribute to the quandaries of K education in America. To be clear public education as a whole is not in crisis.
Children in more affluent school districts gain a comparative advantage over their impoverished peers because they have strong investments tied to the communities overall success Although accommodations are provided to students with disabilities, students with disabilities still struggle with obtaining meaningful instructions. The history, practices, teacher qualifications, and experiences of the special education program are complex and require a tight-knit system of procedure and progress.
In the early twentieth century, parents began to form advocacy groups in hopes to publicize the educational needs of children with disabilities Such people like Ann Fergason for example who organized a charitable events however, is an exception to the rule. The level of power Ann had was souly based upon educational opportunities and persistence to be a major voices in meeting she attended. However this voice tended to drown out local residences of Springfield creating a non-inclusive environment for the community itself.
For the residents who, if given the skills and resources, made available to them, could learn how to develop strength and understand how to do similar research and finding ways to monetarily support the mission of Aris These students come to school with different levels of proficiency in Standard Australian English SAE and will acquire second language proficiency at different rates.
In order for teachers to be good educators they need to develop empathy for other cultural behaviours and beliefs. Educational researchers and curriculum designers continuously find problems with standards and requirements on a state level and how the state and local boards of education focus highly on advanced placement and cultural literacy.
A key focus is also accountability for students, schools, and school-districts in regards to academic performance. A new factor that has surfaced is school choice charter schools and home schooling and character development Failure to meet the requirements of special education law and policies could lead to a school losing federal funding and a principal or other administrator to lose their job or be demoted. In Florida the term Exceptional Student Education ESE is the name given to educational programs and services for students with special learning needs including those who have disabilities and those who are gifted Multiculturalism as stated in the textbook, is defined as allowing and accepting different cultures and providing them encouragement and support to keep their culture and diverse traditions Mintz et al.
In , Canada became the first country in the world to adapt the official policy of multiculturalism. Government of Canada. Although the change in the educational environment is significant for students with disabilities, the concepts of inclusion also raise new issues for the regular classroom teacher. The teacher who seeks to provide an incl Continue reading this essay Continue reading.
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