Using footnotes in a research paper


Using footnotes for citations

Below are different templates:.


  • How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers;
  • What is a Footnote!
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  • What Are Footnotes? - tugequpinyze.ga!

John Smith, ed. John Smith, vol 2. Garrett P.

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William G. When citing an entire work, there are no specific page numbers to refer to. Therefore, simply exclude the page numbers from the footnote.

Essay Writing - Reference Page, Footnotes in APA and MLA Formats

When an original source is unavailable, then cite the secondhand source — for instance, a lecture in a conference proceedings. If using a published address, use a footnote with the following format. The title of books in the Bible should be abbreviated. Chapter and verses should be separated by a colon. You should include the version you are referencing. Generally, follow the same principals of footnotes to cite online sources. Refer to the author if possible and include the URL. If there is no author, use either the article or website title to begin the citation.

Be sure to use quotes for article titles and include the URL. Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style. Get Started. Place an Order. Prices Discounts Place an Order.

Where Does the Little Footnote Mark Go?

Every academic discipline has its own rules for style and formatting. If you're going to be writing a chemistry report , you'll have to worry about writing equations and formatting tables, but if you're working on an English paper you might be more concerned about using block quotes correctly or creating subheadings. History papers are no exception, and students working on coursework for a history class will face a unique set of demands.

Among the most important of these style challenges are footnotes, which historians rely on more than scholars in any other field. Note: All information in this article comes from the 16 th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which is the most common style guide used for works in history.

Using Footnotes (APA)

Just what is a footnote? Basically, it's a number inserted into the text that directs the reader's attention to another location in the paper where they can find more information about what they've just read. In history papers footnotes serve as a way to cite sources, and the note is usually a bibliographic entry that details the source material for a quote or idea. However, these notes can also be used to expand on ideas in the text.

If the notes are located at the bottom of each page, they're called footnotes; if they're collected at the end of the paper, they're called endnotes. Generally, in history it's preferred that the writer use footnotes.


  1. Using Footnotes (APA).
  2. What Are They and Why Use Them?.
  3. Chicago Style Guide!
  4. Sample Footnotes in MLA Style!
  5. Definition;
  6. This format makes it easy for readers since they only need to quickly scan down to the bottom of the page to read the note instead of having to flip back and forth between pages. However, if you have only a few notes or you have so many footnotes that they take up a sizable portion of the page, you may use endnotes. If you're not sure which to use, it's best to ask your teacher or professor which they prefer. In this article I'm going to refer to footnotes only, but all the issues discussed below can be applied to endnotes as well.

    By far the most common type of information provided in a footnote will be citations-bibliographic information for a source you are citing in the main text. For history papers , every time you refer to work done by others, it's should be noted in the text with a footnote, and the note should list all the information the reader would need to track down the original source. What to cite: Deciding what material to cite can be tricky. On one side of the citation spectrum you've got direct quotations-material typed word-for-word from the source text-that should always list the source.

    Indent the first line of each note half an inch like a paragraph in the main text. Use a short line or rule to separate footnotes from the main text. Single-space each note, and add a blank line between notes. For note numbers in the notes, use normal text with a period and space after, or use superscript with a space but no period after.


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