Despite significant attention in recent years, there is no evidence to suggest that current policies, procedures, and approaches have resulted in a significant reduction in sexual harassment. It is time to consider approaches that address the systems, cultures, and climates that enable sexual harassment to perpetuate. Strong and effective leaders at all levels in the organization are required to make the systemwide changes to climate and culture in higher education. However, leaders in academic institutions rarely have leadership training to thoughtfully address culture and climate issues, and the leadership training that exists is often of poor quality.
Environments with organizational systems and structures that value and support diversity, inclusion, and respect are environments where sexual harassment behaviors are less likely to occur. Sexual harassment often takes place against a backdrop of incivility, or in other words, in an environment of generalized disrespect. A culture that values respect and civility is one that can support policies and procedures to prevent and punish sexual harassment, while a culture that does not will counteract efforts to address sexual harassment.
Evidence-based, effective intervention strategies are available for enhancing gender diversity in hiring practices. Focusing evaluation and reward structures on cooperation and collegiality rather than solely on individual-level teaching and research performance metrics could have a significant impact on improving the environment in academia.
Evidence-based, effective intervention strategies are available for raising levels of interpersonal civility and respect in workgroups and teams. An organization that is committed to improving organizational climate must address issues of bias in academia. Training to reduce personal bias can cause larger-scale changes in departmental behaviors in an academic setting.
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Skills-based training that centers on bystander intervention promotes a culture of support, not one of silence. By calling out negative behaviors on the spot, all members of an academic community are helping to create a culture where abusive behavior is seen as an aberration, not as the norm. Reducing hierarchical power structures and diffusing power more broadly among faculty and trainees can reduce the risk of sexual ha. Departments and institutions could take the following approaches for diffusing power: Make use of egalitarian leadership styles that recognize that people at all levels of experience and expertise have important insights to offer.
Adopt mentoring networks or committee-based advising that allows for a diversity of potential pathways for advice, funding, support, and informal reporting of harassment. Develop ways the research funding can be provided to the trainee rather than just the principal investigator. Systems and policies that support targets of sexual harassment and provide options for informal and formal reporting can reduce the reluctance to report harassment as well as reduce the harm sexual harassment can cause the target.
Institutions could build systems of response that empower targets by providing alternative and less formal means of accessing support services, recording information, and reporting incidents without fear of retaliation. Supporting student targets also includes helping them to manage their education and training over the long term.
Confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements isolate sexual harassment targets by limiting their ability to speak with others about their experiences and can serve to shield perpetrators who have harassed people repeatedly. Transparency and accountability are crucial elements of effective sexual harassment policies. Systems in which prohibitions against unacceptable behaviors are clear and which hold members of the community accountable for meeting the behavioral and cultural expectations established by leadership have lower rates of sexual harassment.
Key components of clear anti-harassment policies are that they are quickly and easily digested i. In an effort to change behavior and improve the climate, it may also be appropriate for institutions to undertake some rehabilitation-focused measures, even though these may not be sanctions per se.
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For the people in an institution to understand that the institution does not tolerate sexual harassment, it must show that it does investigate and then hold perpetrators accountable in a reasonable timeframe. Institutions can anonymize the basic information and provide regular reports that convey how many reports are being investigated and what the outcomes are from the investigation. An approach for improving transparency and demonstrating that the institution takes sexual harassment seriously is to encourage internal review of its policies, procedures, and interventions for addressing sexual harassment, and to have interactive dialogues with members of their campus community especially expert researchers on these topics around ways to improve the culture and climate and change behavior.
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Sexual harassment training efforts need to be evaluated and studied to determine their efficacy and indicate where they need to be changed or improved, particularly the types of training that show negative effects. Cater training to specific populations; in academia this would include students, postdoctoral fellows, staff, faculty, and those in leadership. Attend to the institutional motivation for training , which can impact the effectiveness of the training; for instance, compliance-based approaches have limited positive impact. Conduct training using live qualified trainers and offer trainees specific examples of inappropriate conduct.
We note that a great deal of sexual harassment training today is offered via an online mini-course or the viewing of a short video. Describe standards of behavior clearly and accessibly e. To the extent that the training literature provides broad guidelines for creating impactful training that can change climate and behavior, they include the following:. Establish standards of behavior rather than solely seek to influence attitudes and beliefs.
Clear communication of behavioral expectations, and teaching of behavioral skills, is essential. Conduct training in adherence to best standards , including appropriate pre-training needs assessment and evaluation of its effectiveness. Creating a climate that prevents sexual harassment requires measuring the climate in relation to sexual harassment, diversity, and respect, and assessing progress in reducing sexual harassment. Efforts to incentivize systemwide changes, such as Athena SWAN, 1 are crucial to motivating organizations and departments within organizations to make the necessary changes.
Sexual harassment in academic science, engineering, and medicine will be more effectively addressed in higher education if the standards of behavior are also upheld in off-campus environments such as professional society meetings and collaborative research and field sites.
Enacting new codes of conduct and new rules related specifically to conference attendance. Including sexual harassment in codes of ethics and investigating reports of sexual harassment. This is a new responsibility for professional societies, and these organizations are considering how to take into consideration the law, home institutions, due process, and careful reporting when dealing with reports of sexual harassment.
Supporting and designing programs that prevent harassment and provide skills to intervene when someone is being harassed. Factoring in harassment-related professional misconduct into scientific award decisions. Professional societies have the potential to be powerful drivers of change through their capacity to help educate, train, codify, and reinforce cultural expectations for their respective scientific, engineering, and medical communities. Some professional societies have taken action to prevent and respond to sexual harassment among their membership. There are many promising approaches to changing the culture and climate in academia; however, further research assessing the effects and values of the following approaches is needed to identify best practices: Policies, procedures, trainings, and interventions, specifically how they prevent and stop sexually harassing behavior, alter perception of organizational tolerance for sexually harassing behavior, and reduce the negative consequences from reporting the incidents.
This includes informal and formal reporting mechanisms, bystander intervention training, academic leadership training, sexual harassment training, interventions to improve civility, mandatory reporting requirements, and approaches to supporting and improving communication with the target.
Mechanisms for target-led resolution options and mechanisms by which the target has a role in deciding what happens to the perpetrator, including restorative justice practices. Mechanisms for protecting targets from retaliation. Rehabilitation-focused measures for disciplining perpetrators. Incentive systems for encouraging leaders in higher education to address the issues of sexual harassment on campus. Academic institutions and their leaders should take explicit steps to achieve greater gender and racial equity in hiring and promotions, and thus improve the representation of women at every level.
Academic institutions should combine anti-harassment efforts with civility-promotion programs. Training should be viewed as the means of providing the skills needed by all members of the academic community, each of whom has a role to play in building a positive organizational climate focused on safety and respect, and not simply as a method of ensuring compliance with laws. Academic institutions should utilize training approaches that develop skills among participants to interrupt and intervene when inappropriate behavior occurs. These training programs should be evaluated to deter. Anti—sexual harassment training programs should focus on changing behavior, not on changing beliefs.
Programs should focus on clearly communicating behavioral expectations, specifying consequences for failing to meet these expectations, and identifying the mechanisms to be utilized when these expectations are not met. Training programs should not be based on the avoidance of legal liability. Academic institutions should be accountable for the climate within their organization. In particular, they should utilize climate surveys to further investigate and address systemic sexual harassment, particularly when surveys indicate specific schools or facilities have high rates of harassment or chronically fail to reduce rates of sexual harassment.
Academic institutions should consider sexual harassment equally important as research misconduct in terms of its effect on the integrity of research. They should increase collaboration among offices that oversee the integrity of research i. College and university presidents, provosts, deans, department chairs, and program directors must make the reduction and prevention of sexual.
Additionally, these skills development programs should be customized to each level of leadership. Leadership training programs for those in academia should include training on how to recognize and handle sexual harassment issues, and how to take explicit steps to create a culture and climate to reduce and prevent sexual harassment—and not just protect the institution against liability.
When organizations study sexual harassment, they should follow the valid methodologies established by social science research on sexual harassment and should consult subject-matter experts. Academic institutions should also conduct more wide-ranging assessments using measures in addition to campus climate surveys, for example, ethnography, focus groups, and exit interviews. These methods are especially important in smaller organizational units where surveys, which require more participants to yield meaningful data, might not be useful.
Organizations studying sexual harassment in their environments should take into consideration the particular experiences of people of color and sexual- and gender-minority people, and they should utilize methods that allow them to disaggregate their data by race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity to reveal the different experiences across populations. The results of climate surveys should be shared publicly to encourage transparency and accountability and to demonstrate to the campus community that the institution takes the issue seriously.
One option would be for academic institutions to collaborate in developing a central repository for reporting their climate data, which could also improve the ability for research to be conducted on the effectiveness of institutional approaches. Federal agencies and foundations should commit resources to develop a tool similar to ARC3, the Administrator-Researcher Campus Climate Collaborative, to understand and track the climate for faculty, staff, and postdoctoral fellows.
Accreditation bodies should consider efforts to create diverse, inclusive, and respectful environments when evaluating institutions or departments. Federal agencies should incentivize efforts to reduce sexual harassment in academia by requiring evaluations of the research environment, funding research and evaluation of training for students and faculty including bystander intervention , supporting the development and evaluation of leadership training for faculty, and funding research on effective policies and procedures.
Professional societies should accelerate their efforts to be viewed as organizations that are helping to create culture changes that reduce or prevent the occurrence of sexual harassment. They should provide support and guidance for members who have been targets of sexual harassment. They should use their influence to address sexual harassment in the scientific, medical, and engineering communities they represent and promote a professional culture of civility and respect. The efforts of the American Geophysical Union are especially exemplary and should be considered as a model for other professional societies to follow.
Other organizations that facilitate the research and training of people in science, engineering, and medicine, such as collaborative field sites i. Attend to sexual harassment with at least the same level of attention and resources as devoted to research misconduct. Require institutions to report to federal agencies when individuals on grants have been found to have violated sexual harassment policies or have been put on administrative leave related to sexual harassment, as the National Science Foundation has proposed doing.
Agencies should also hold accountable the perpetrator and the institution by using a range of disciplinary actions that limit the negative effects on other grant personnel who were either the target of the harassing behavior or innocent bystanders. Reward and incentivize colleges and universities for implementing policies, programs, and strategies that research shows are most likely to and are succeeding in reducing and preventing sexual harassment.
Policies, procedures, trainings, and interventions, specifically their ability to prevent and stop sexually harassing behavior, to alter perception of organizational tolerance for sexually harassing behavior, and to reduce the negative consequences from reporting the incidents. This should include research on informal and formal reporting mechanisms, bystander intervention training, academic leadership training, sexual harassment and diversity training, interventions to improve civility, mandatory reporting requirements, and approaches to supporting and improving communication with the target.
What Is the Gender Leadership Gap?
Approaches for mitigating the negative impacts and outcomes that targets experience. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment within specific fields in. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment perpetrated by students on faculty. The amount of sexual harassment that serial harassers are responsible for. The prevalence and effect of ambient harassment in the academic setting.
The connections between consensual relationships and sexual harassment. Psychological characteristics that increase the risk of perpetrating different forms of sexually harassing behaviors. Think of the women who led the civil rights and education reform movements. But women are still outnumbered by men in the most prestigious positions, from Capitol Hill to the board room.
Share It. Women of color make up just 5 percent of U. Women make up over half the population but under 30 percent of executives. Asian, black, and Hispanic women make up less than 4 percent of executive officials and managers. The leadership gender gap is persistent and pervasive but solvable. We can all take action.
gatsbybuild.co.uk/confesiones-de-una-doncella-inglesa.php Women leaders can make companies stronger and more profitable. There is no lack of qualified women to fill leadership roles. Gender bias. Why do we assume that people in powerful positions are men — and how can we correct that? The responsibility is on employers to create an equitable workplace culture.
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Time will not solve the gender leadership gap; action will. Are you biased against women leaders? Take the test.
Join the conversation by using hashtag leadHERship. In short, women are much less likely than men to be in leadership positions. In universities, businesses, courts, unions, and religious institutions, male leaders outnumber female leaders by wide margins.
Our elected state representatives, for example, are far more likely to be men than women:. The gender leadership crisis is even worse in the U. Congress, where women make up only 19 percent of our elected officials. For women of color, leadership opportunities are particularly elusive.
The further you move up the ladder, the fewer women are there.
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