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Childhood obesity research paper mla By. In Uncategorized. In the long-term, obesity will cause early puberty especially in girls at the age of ten. Further, obesity will increase cases of illnesses in individuals and contribute to poor socio- economic outcomes of individuals. According to Wang and Lim , obese children will develop into obese adults and thus are at higher risk of developing chronic illness such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke and certain cancers.
Further, premature death will likely result in some of the cases of obesity where this chronic disease are present. Prevention and Treatment One of the most valuable preventive measures against childhood obesity is the inclusion of physical activities in their daily schedule. This may require parents to allow their children to 4.
Surname 4 play every day. In some instances, parents will have to be strict about the use of indoor games such as video games. They ought to insist that the children participate in outdoor games that involve running, jumping and sweating. Another effective strategy that can be employed is the minimization of the amount of time spent in front of the television or screen.
Children ought to be given specific times for watching television.
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This allows them to do proactive things and hence encourage outdoor activities. Another important factor in the prevention of childhood obesity is the control of diet. The children should barely eat fast foods such as French fries. Meals ought to be eaten as a family where they are balanced.
Fruits and vegetables ought to take precedence over carbohydrates. In fact, it is recommended that a third of the meal should comprise of vegetables. Water should be taken in plenty throughout the day and during meals. Water ought never to be replaced with energy drinks since these contain a lot of unnecessary sugar. Most importantly, parents are tasked with the role of being examples and role models to their children. Parents should maintain healthy eating lifestyles and even constant workout routines. This encourages the children to be equally active and hence reduce the probability of occurrence of childhood obesity.
Parents are persuaded to avoid the use of food, especially confectionery, as rewards and punishment.
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This sets up wrong attitudes among the children hence resulting in overindulgence in the same as they grow up. Overweight parents ought to show an initiative of losing weight if they hope their children to take up a healthy eating lifestyle Phillips Surname 5 Schools play a significant role in preventing childhood obesity through their co-curricular activities. They ought to insist of active participation in sports and even include it as a subject. Some schools have an official day of the week that is set aside for sporting activities.
The sporting activities help to ensure that the child develops an interest in physical activities and lose unnecessary weight Phillips Parents and teachers ought to encourage children to take up healthy dietary behaviors.
This includes ensuring that the children do not skip breakfast meals since this is one of the causes of childhood obesity in many obese children. Treatment of childhood obesity is not possible as a single dose. However, the most effective treatment programs involve dietary and behavioral changes.
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It has become more common due to the increase in the risk factors that cause obesity. However, it is possible to manage the problem through adequate support and guidance program by both the parents and the school. Successful evidence gathering, evaluation, and synthesis for use in obesity prevention usually require the involvement of a number of disciplines using a variety of methodologies and technical languages.
The framework incorporates a standardized approach using a uniform language and structure for summarizing the relevant evidence in a systematic, transparent, and transdisciplinary way that is critical for communicating the process and conclusions clearly.
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With an emergent problem such as obesity, decisions to act often must be made in the face of a relative absence of evidence, or evidence that is inconclusive, inconsistent, or incomplete. Evidence gathered from a particular intervention implemented in a closely controlled manner within a specific population with its own unique characteristics is often difficult to apply to a similar intervention with another population.
The typical way of presenting results of obesity prevention efforts in journals often adds to the problem of incomplete evidence because useful aspects of the research related to its generalizability are not reported. If obesity prevention actions must be taken when evidence is limited, this incomplete evidence can be blended with theory, expert opinion, experience, and local wisdom to make the best decision possible.
The actions taken then should undergo critical evaluation, the results of which should be used to build credible evidence for use in decision making about future efforts. The evidence base to support the identification of effective obesity prevention interventions is limited in many areas. Opportunities to generate evidence may occur.
In obesity prevention—related research, the generation of evi dence from evaluation of ongoing and emerging initiatives is a particular priority. Researchers, decision makers, and intermediaries working on obesity prevention and other complex multifactorial public health problems are the primary audiences for communicating and disseminating the L. With sufficient information, they can apply the framework as a guide for generating needed evidence and supporting decision making.
It is important to understand the settings, communication channels, and activities of these key audiences to engage and educate them effectively on the purpose and adoption of the framework. To support the development of a communication and dissemination plan, it is critical to create partnerships, make use of existing activities and networks, and tailor the messages and approaches to each target audience.
As the target audiences begin to use the framework, assessing its use in selected settings will be essential so it can be improved and refined. Evaluation of the impact of the L.
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- American Heart Association Childhood Obesity Research Summit Report;
To this end, key outcome measures—utilization, adoption, acceptance, maintenance, and impact—should be defined and data collected on these measures. The United States has made progress toward translating science into practice in the brief time since the obesity epidemic was officially recognized. But the pace of this translation has been slow relative to the scope and urgency of the problem and the associated harms and costs.
As discussed above, moreover, the evidence emerging from applied research on obesity prevention can be inconclusive, incomplete, and inconsistent.
American Heart Association Childhood Obesity Research Summit Report
A systematic process is needed to improve the use of available evidence and increase and enhance the evidence base to inform decisions on obesity prevention and other complex public health problems. Commitment to such a process is needed from both decision makers and those involved in generating evidence, including public and private policy makers and their advisors, scientific and policy think tanks, advocacy groups and stakeholders, program planners, practitioners in public health and other sectors, program evaluators, public health researchers and research scientists, journal editors, and funders.
With this in mind, the committee makes the following recom-. Recommendation 1: Decision makers and those involved in generating evidence, including researchers, research funders, and publishers of research, should apply the L. Key assumptions that should guide the use of the framework include the following:.
The types of evidence that should be gathered to inform decision making are based on the nature of the questions being asked, including Why? A focus on subsets of these questions as a starting point in gathering evidence explicitly expands the evidence base that is typically identified and gathered. The quality of the evidence should be judged according to established criteria for that type of evidence.
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The analysis of the evidence to be used in making a decision should be summarized and communicated in a systematic, transparent, and transdisciplinary manner that uses uniform language and structure. The report on this analysis should include a summary of the question s asked by the decision maker; the strategy for gathering and selecting the evidence; an evidence table showing the sources, types, and quality of the evidence and the outcomes reported; and a concise summary of the synthesis of selected evidence on why an action should be taken, what that action should be, and how it should be taken.
If action must be taken when evidence is limited, this incomplete evidence can be blended carefully and transparently with theory, expert opinion, and collaboration based on professional experience and local wisdom to support making the best decision. Sustained commitments will be needed from both the public and private sectors to achieve successful utilization of the various elements of the L. This respon-. Necessary supports will include increasing understanding of systems thinking and incorporating it into research-related activities, creating and maintaining resources to support the utilization of evidence, establishing standards of quality for different types of evidence, and supporting the generation of evidence, each of which is described in more detail below.
Finally, it will be necessary to communicate, disseminate, evaluate, and refine the L.
Recommendation 2: Researchers, government and private funders, educators, and journal editors should incorporate systems thinking into their research-related activities. Researchers should use systems thinking to guide the development of environmental and policy interventions and study designs. Government and private funders should encourage the use of systems thinking in their requests for proposals and include systems considerations in proposal evaluations.
Universities, government agencies such as the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and public health organizations responsible for educating public health practitioners and related researchers should establish training capacity for the science and understanding of systems thinking and the use of systems mapping and other quantitative or qualitative systems analysis tools. Journal editors should encourage the use of systems thinking for addressing complex problems by developing panels of peer reviewers with expertise in this area and charging them with making recommendations for how authors could use systems thinking more effectively in their manuscripts.
Recommendation 3: Government, foundations, professional organizations, and research institutions should build a system of resources people, compendiums of knowledge, registries of implementation experience to support evidence-based public policy decision making and research for complex health challenges, including obesity prevention. The Secretary of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with other public- and private-sector partners, should establish a sustainable registry of reports on evidence for environmental and policy actions for obesity prevention.
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