Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. One way to do this is to begin the literature review by summarizing your argument even before you begin to make it.
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Here are some simple examples:. Finally, remember that your goal is to construct an argument for why your research question is interesting and worth addressing—not necessarily why your favourite answer to it is correct. In other words, your literature review must be balanced. If you want to emphasize the generality of a phenomenon, then of course you should discuss various studies that have demonstrated it.
What is APA Style and Why Is It Important? | CSU Global Blog
However, if there are other studies that have failed to demonstrate it, you should discuss them too. Or if you are proposing a new theory, then of course you should discuss findings that are consistent with that theory. However, if there are other findings that are inconsistent with it, again, you should discuss them too. Besides, a large part of what makes a research question interesting is uncertainty about its answer. The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis.
This statement tends to be more formal and precise than in the opening and is often expressed in terms of operational definitions of the key variables. The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness. These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid.
Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behaviour during the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. Thus the introduction leads smoothly into the next major section of the article—the method section. At the same time, it should avoid irrelevant details such as the fact that the study was conducted in Classroom 37B of the Industrial Technology Building or that the questionnaire was double-sided and completed using pencils. The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation.
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After the participants section, the structure can vary a bit. Figure In the first, the participants section is followed by a design and procedure subsection, which describes the rest of the method. This works well for methods that are relatively simple and can be described adequately in a few paragraphs. In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections. This works well when both the design and the procedure are relatively complicated and each requires multiple paragraphs. What is the difference between design and procedure?
The design of a study is its overall structure. What were the independent and dependent variables? Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? How were the variables operationally defined? The procedure is how the study was carried out. It often works well to describe the procedure in terms of what the participants did rather than what the researchers did. For example, the participants gave their informed consent, read a set of instructions, completed a block of four practice trials, completed a block of 20 test trials, completed two questionnaires, and were debriefed and excused.
In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. This works well when there are complicated materials to describe. This might mean multiple questionnaires, written vignettes that participants read and respond to, perceptual stimuli, and so on. The heading of this subsection can be modified to reflect its content.
Although there are no standard subsections, it is still important for the results section to be logically organized. Typically it begins with certain preliminary issues. One is whether any participants or responses were excluded from the analyses and why. The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate. A second preliminary issue is how multiple responses were combined to produce the primary variables in the analyses.
For example, if participants rated the attractiveness of 20 stimulus people, you might have to explain that you began by computing the mean attractiveness rating for each participant. Or if they recalled as many items as they could from study list of 20 words, did you count the number correctly recalled, compute the percentage correctly recalled, or perhaps compute the number correct minus the number incorrect?
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A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. A final preliminary issue is whether the manipulation was successful. This is where you would report the results of any manipulation checks. The results section should then tackle the primary research questions, one at a time. Again, there should be a clear organization.
One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones. Another would be to answer the main question first and then to answer secondary ones.
Regardless, Bem  suggests the following basic structure for discussing each new result:. Notice that only Step 3 necessarily involves numbers. The rest of the steps involve presenting the research question and the answer to it in words. In fact, the basic results should be clear even to a reader who skips over the numbers.
Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements:. Our editors typically look for the following items in an APA Introduction:. The Introduction must be well organized and may contain headings to make the APA paper more understandable. Try to avoid jargon as it will only confuse your reader. This section describes the research and how it was conducted. The method is very important because it concerns the reproducibility of the research. Reproducibility, one of the main principles of the Scientific Method, refers to the ability of a test or experiment to be replicated by independent researchers.
We look for the following subsections in the Method section of an APA paper: participants or subjects , measures, and procedures the latter two are often combined in one subsection. These subheadings should be left-justified.minyueh.nctucs.net/22989-how-to.php
APA (6th ed.) Writing & Citing Guide
The "participants" subsection should describe the subjects including total number and their basic demographic information and how they were selected and categorized. It should also explain why some subjects were not included. The subsection for measures and procedures should specify the equipment and materials used in the experiment, including any questionnaires or surveys.
This section must also describe in detail how the research was conducted. The results section of an APA paper presents the findings. This section should summarize the data collected and the statistical or analytical treatments used. Tables, figures, graphs, charts, drawings, and photographs may be included, but it is important to keep them as simple as possible.
Clearly label each visual with an Arabic numeral e.
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The label and the title should appear flush left on separate lines above the table. Remember to include any source details below the table. The Discussion section is an interpretation and evaluation of the findings. In this section, based on the findings discussed in the Results section, the author should address the issues raised in the Introduction. This is not simply a reiteration of the results or points previously made.
The Discussion section of your APA paper should be organized into the following parts:. Remember, you must always cite your sources, so review our example APA Reference page to ensure your citations are correct. So there you have it: our in-depth discussion of APA paper format. Learn how to tackle what many consider to be the most difficult part of APA formatting: references. APA style is a widely accepted editorial style used for social science papers.
This article looks at what is involved in ensuring your writing adheres to APA style. Are you confused by MLA citations? Headings serves the purpose of structuring a paper in subtle divisions organizing every bit of facts and data. Moreover, readers get a glimpse of the content of discussion if there is a rational heading. Below, you can find a discussion on those properties.
If there is requirement for more headings, you may use them in similar format diminishing the font size persistently. With verbs and words practice, tonality, spacing, labels and others underlies certain regulations. Possibly the trickiest part in APA format is citing the sources. Be it in-text citations or bibliography, you need to be exact in mentioning the source. Also, remember to include every possible sources irrespective of its small or big contributions in your dissertation or essay.
Next in lines come the citation of the referential sites, sources and informers. Unless you visualize an APA format example, you cannot understand the practical details. As per norms, guidelines differ from books to journals, magazines, websites, conference papers and other sources. Here are some additional information that you must consider, while designing the paper, in order to retain the APA formatting in your paper.
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